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Full text of "Ten for survival : survive nuclear attack"

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DEPARTMENj OF DEFENSE 

Office of 3ivil Defense 
Mav|l959 

Reprinted September 1961 



AXIOM FOR SURVIVAL 

If this country is attacked with nuclear weapons 
you. can protect yourself l^t* first, ygttmust knaw 
what to- do audt ha^ ta do it. 



A 20 -megaton explosion on the surface of the earth 
can kill most people and destroy most buildings 
within a 5 -mile radius of ground zero, a total of about 
80 square miles. 

The most likely targets are big cities — industrial 
areas — military centers. 

However, you are not safe merely because you live 
far away from likely targets. 

Distance protects you against heat and blast, but 
not against radioactive fallout which goes anywhere 
and can kill or injure the unprotected and the un- 
prepared. 

Without protection from fallout, millions would 
die who otherwise would survive. Put more posi- 
tively, millions of Americans could save their lives 
by learning what to do -and doing it. 



for Survival 



This booklet was pre- 
pared in connection 
with the educational 
television series, "Ten 
For Survival." The se- 
ries, consisting of 10 
programs, was pro- 
duced for the Office of 
Civil and Defense Mo- 
bilization by the Na- 
tional Broadcasting 
Co., in association with 
the Educational Tele- 
vision and Radio Cen- 
ter. It describes the 
possible effects of 
major disasters — par- 
ticularly nuclear attack. 



SURVIVE 
NUCLEAR 
ATTACK 



DEPARTMENl OF DEFENSE 

Office of ^ivil Defense 
Ma\^1959 

Reprinted Sept8mber 1961 



AXIOM FOR SURVIVAL 

If this country is attacked with nuclear weapons 
you. can protect yourself Kit. first, yqu: must knaw 
what to- do andt hfyM ta do- it. 



A 20-megaton explosion on the surface of the earth 
can kill most people and destroy most buildings 
within a 5 -mile radius of ground zero, a total of about 
80 square miles. 

The most likely targets are big cities — industrial 
areas— mihtary centers. 

However, you are not safe merely because you live 
far away from likely targets. 

Distance protects you against heat and blast, but 
not against radioactive fallout which goes anywhere 
and can kill or injure the unprotected and the un- 
prepared. 

Without protection from fallout, millions would 
die who otherwise would survive. Put more posi- 
tively, millions of Americans could save their lives 
by learning what to do and doing it. 



KNOWLEDGE 
IS YOUR KEY 
TO SURVIVAL 



To protect yourself at the time of a nuclear 
explosion, you must understand NOW the hazards 
you would face. 

You probably will be warned in advance by siren 
or radio that attack is coming. The Air Force, with 
its far-flung detection network, and the Office of 
Civil Defense are working together to do everything 
possible to warn you. 

But surprise attack could come. You must know 
what to do if it does. 



YOU SHOULD KNOW THE 
THREE MAIN DESTRUCTIVE 
EFFECTS OF A 
NUCLEAR EXPLOSION 



HEAT, BLAST, FALLOUT 
HEAT 

Dangers facing you: The bomb produces heat 
of several million degrees— a good deal hotter than 
the temperature on the surface of the sun. This 
heat travels at the speed of light. A megaton explo- 
sion could kill an unshielded man 8 miles from ground 
zero. A 20-megaton explosion could kill an un- 
shielded man 20 miles away. It could bUster and 
cripple the bodies of unsheltered people well beyond 
that. 




What you should do: Beyond the 5-mile radius 
of total destruction, but still within range of the 
immediate killing power of the bomb, you would 
have split seconds to save your life. 

You would have to act with instinctive speed to 
take cover behind whatever was at hand. 








BLAST 



Dangers facing you: The shock waves of blast 
from a nuclear explosion travel about 900 miles 
an hour— nine times the force of a major hurricane! 
Blast could destroy a brick building 9X miles from 
ground zero. 

What you should do: If caught unprotected 
beyond the 5 -mile circle of total destruction you 
could save your life with an instantaneous dive for 
cover. 

Cover is the same for both heat and blast. 



In open country it 
might be a ditch or culvert. 
Lie face down and stay 
there until the heat and 
blast waves have passed. 

In the city it might be 
a wall, a building, or even 
a truck. 

Indoors it would be the 
floor (behind furniture or 
as close to an inside wall 
as possible). 



THE MAIN IDEA- 
GET BEHIND SOMETHING 





FALLOUT 



Dangers facing you: 
The millions of tons of 
pulverized earth and de- 
bris sucked up as high as 
15 miles by the fireball of 
a large nuclear explosion 
become a deadly radio- 
active fallout cloud. It 
spreads its lethal radio- 
activity over wide areas, 
hundreds of miles down- 
wind from ground zero. 
Fallout radioactivity can- 
not be detected by taste 
or touch. Sometimes, but 
not always, the fine ash or 
dust carrying the radioac- 
tivity is visible. It fills the 
atmosphere, the air you 
breathe, and attacks the 
vital organs of your body 
with invisible radiation. 



PROTECTION FROM FALLOUT 

The best protection against fallout radiation is a 
fallout shelter. Every family should have one. It 
can be an area in a building of such heavy construc- 
tion as to afford the required shielding or a shelter 
designed to be a unit of a family dwelling. 

Several types of family fallout shelters are de- 
scribed and illustrated in a booklet entitled "The 
Family Fallout Shelter", MP 15. Copies may be 
obtained from your local civil defense director. 



Basement Concrete Block Shelter, designed as 
a do-it-yourself project. Solid concrete blocks are 
used to build it. 




Underground Concrete Shelters, one designed 
as a basement shelter in new housing, and one as an 
outdoor, underground shelter. 

T 




THESE SHELTERS WILL PROVIt 




^^•••^^.*:.'v;'v»»»»**'*'* 




,»» ».'<♦♦.. ^ ' 



Preshaped Metal Shelter, built by placing pre- 
shaped corrugated metal sections on or close to the 
surface of the ground and mounding them over with 
earth. 




Aboveground Double-Wall Shelter, which is 
a double-walled, concrete block structure with the 
walls built nearly 2 feet apart. The space between 
the walls is filled with earth. A roof is built of either 
poured concrete or wood and covered with earth. 

YOU WITH EXCELLENT PROTECTION 



11 



If you are caught by fallout away from a shelter 
or have no shelter in your home, the best place to 
be in order of the protection you would get would be : 

1. In a corner of a basement. 

2. In the center of the basement. 

(Sandbags covering basement windows will in- 
crease protection.) 

3. First floor inside hallway of a two-story house. 

4. Inside hallway of a one-story house. 



SHELTER IN APARTMENT 
BUILDINGS 

Apartment buildings generally provide more fall- 
out protection than houses. 

The central area of the ground floor of an apart- 
ment building provides good shelter. The subsur- 
face basement of a heavy apartment building might 
give as much fallout protection as a concrete block 
shelter in the basement of a house. 




If your fallout shelter is to be an apartment house 
basement, you should survey it in advance to assure 
that there is ventilation, water, lighting, and the 
other requirements of a prepared shelter. You 
would probably have time to carry your family sup- 
plies from your apartment to the basement after an 
attack warning before any fallout arrives. If not, 
a quick trip from the basement to your apartment 
to get supplies is not likely to present any significant 
additional hazard. 

The Department of Defense has initiated a 
nationwide survey to identify, mark, and stock 
potential fallout shelter space in existing structures. 
In addition, some Federal buildings will be used to 
determine the best methods of modifying existing 
structures to provide usable fallout shelter space, 
and dual -purpose fallout shelters will be included 
in certain new Federal buildings. 

HOW WILL YOU KNOW 
IF YOU ARE IN A 
FALLOUT AREA? 

Radiation from fallout cannot be detected by 
sight, taste, smell, hearing, or touch. If an un- 
usual amount of dust is accumulating outside your 
house following a nuclear explosion you should as- 
sume it is radioactive. However, you should not 
depend on such an uncertain method of detection. 

13 




CONELRAD will be your main source of informa- 
tion on fallout and protective measures you might 
take. This is the national system of emergency 
broadcasting that goes into effect when the Com- 
mander of the North American Air Defense Com- 
mand determines an air attack is imminent or under 
way. 

This is why you should have a battery-powered 
portable radio in your shelter. When CONELRAD 
goes into effect all broadcasting stations except 
CONELRAD stations go off the air. The CONEL- 
RAD stations broadcast on two frequencies, 640 or 
1240 on your dial. 



14 



Over these CONELRAD channels your local civil 
defense officials will give you warning of fallout and 
let you know when you can safely leave shelter. 



In rural sections or other localities where CONEL- 
RAD may not be operative, local officials may 
use different methods of communication. This 
is another reason why everyone should know his 
local survival plans and his part in them. 



HOW LONG WILL YOU 
HAVE TO STAY 
IN SHELTER? 



Radiation from fallout decreases with time. Also, 
it is not possible to know in advance what the amount 
of fallout or dose rate would be in any given place. 
Therefore, the time you would have to remain in 
shelter can only be determined accurately by meas- 
uring the dose-rate of the fallout in your immediate 
vicinity. 

Radiological instruments frequently termed "citi- 
zens' instruments" -are available commercially at 
relatively low cost. In an emergency, they will 



15 



enable you to determine the dose-rate around you 
and to locate the most protected portion of your 
home after fallout arrives. However, you should 
not leave your shelter permanently or evacuate 
on the basis of reading your meter. Without instruc- 
tions from local or State officials you might blunder 
into even heavier radiation than that at your shelter. 

Where widespread and heavy fallout occurs local 
officials might decide to evacuate people to safer 
areas. You should keep tuned to CONELRAD 
for advice and guidance. 



IF YOU THINK YOU 
HAVE FALLOUT ON YOU 



Without a meter you cannot be sure that the dust 
or fallout on you is radioactive. If you are sure or 
suspect that it is radioactive, remove your outer 
garments outside the shelter and leave them there. 
Wash the uncovered parts of your body and throw 
the water outside the shelter. 

If any unpackaged food has been exposed to fall- 
out, decontaminate it by peeling and washing. Do 
not discard the food. Food may be in very short 
supply; and even though contaminated, eating it 
would be better than starving. 

16 




DISCASCU "^' * 
OUTER GARMENT: 



WASH EXPOSED 
PARTS OF BODY 





WASH AND PEEL 
yNPACKAGED 
OOD 



17 



PREPARE NOW FOR 
LIVING IN A SHELTER 

Every family should have a minimum 14-day 
supply of food and water, since except for very 
brief departures from your shelter you could be 
pinned down longer than 2 weeks. 

However, as in all planning for emergency, it is 
best to plan against the worst. It is possible that 
in instances local officials could not supply all of the 
people in their jurisdictions. There also might be 
instances of severe fallout from recurring attack that 
would keep people in their shelters for an extended 
period. A good plan would be to have 2 weeks' or 
more supply of food on hand at all times. 

You should know: 

1. Where to find safe water. 

2. How to turn off" water service valve. 

3. How to purify water. 

4. What foods to store and how to prepare them. 

5. What foods are unsafe. 

6. How to dispose of garbage. 

7. How to dispose of human wastes. 

8. How to make soil bags. 

9. What to do with frozen foods. 



18 



BEFORE DISASTER STRIKES. 

YOU SHOULD HAVE ON^ HAND : 

1. Flashlight and extra batteries. 

2. Battery-powered portable radio and extra 
batteries. 

3. First-aid kits. 

4. Stored water or other liquid —7 gallons per 
person for 2 weeks. Water in hot water tanks, in 
toilet tanks, and ice cubes in a refrigerator can be 
used as an additional source. 

5. A 14-day supply of food, paper plates, and 
napkins. 




6. Cooking and eating utensils, measuring cup, can 
and bottle openers, pocket knife, and matches. 

7. Special foods for babies and invalids. 

19 



8. Large garbage can (20 gallons). 

9. Smaller can for human wastes (10 gallons). 

10. Covered pail for bathroom purpKDses. 

11. Toilet tissue, paper towels, personal sanitary- 
supplies, disposable diapers, and soap. 

12. One blanket per person, rubber sheeting, and 
special equipment for the sick. 

13. Grocery bags, and a week's accumulation of 
newspapers for wrapping garbage. 

14. Two pints of household chlorine, and 1 quart 
of 5 percent DDT. 

15. Wrench, screwdriver, and shovel; axe and 
crowbar to free yourself from debris, if necessary, or 
to help others to do so. 

16. Waterproof gloves. 



YOU'LL BE ON YOUR OWN 

Impure water and unsafe food can make you sick. 
Garbage and human wastes can spread disease if not 
wrapped and placed in closed containers. They 
should be disposed of as soon as it is safe to leave 
your shelter. Public services which now guard your 
family's health may be knocked out temporarily by a 
nuclear attack. Sewer mains may be broken. Gar- 
bage collection may not exist. Fresh food and milk 
will not be delivered. You will be on your own 
until these facilities can be restored. 



20 



YOU MUST HAVE SAFE FOODS 

Precooked foods, baby foods, fruit juices, canned 
vegetables and soups, and canned meat and fish 
are easily stored (the cans are easily washed off if 
they become contaminated with fallout). Packages 
of cereals and dried foods, raisins, and chocolate are 
quick sources of energy. 



Avoid salty foods. They will increase 
your consumption of drinking water. 

Avoid frozen food; it spoils when defrosted. 

Store small-size, one-meal-only cans of 
foods, since the means of preserving left- 
overs may not be available. 

Do not eat any produce from your home 
garden without first decontaminating it. 

Any fruit or vegetable that can be peeled 

(bananas, citrus fruits, potatoes) is safe 

to eat after it has been wiped off and peeled. 

Any container that has held water used 
for washing off fallout must be rinsed 
and wiped off before being used again. 



21 



RADIATION SICKNESS 
rs NOT CONTAGIOUS 



If you have a case of radiation sickness in your 
shelter remember: 

An exposed person is not himself radioactive, nor 
do the things he touches become radioactive. He 
cannot affect another person — unless he has radio- 
active fallout on his skin or clothing. This can be 
removed by washing the skin and discarding the 
clothing. 




22 



KNOWLEDGE IS 
SURVIVAL POWER 

More people could be in danger from fallout in a 
nuclear attack than from blast or heat. 

They must have shelters and know how to live in 
them if they are to survive. 

THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW 

Further information on survival can be obtained 
from the following OCD publications. 

Facts About Fallout Protection, L-18. 

Fire Fighting for Householders, PB-4, revised 
May 1958. 

First Aid: Emergency Kit; Emergency Action, 
L -12, revised April 1958. 

Home Protection Exercises, MP-1, revised Sep- 
tember 1958. 

The Family Fallout Shelter, MP-15. 

These publications can be purchased from the Su- 
perintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D.C., at nominal cost. 



23 

tl U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O — 608404